# Classroom Resources Index – Courses for K–12 Students

## Classroom-Ready Resources and Teaching Suggestions

A Pair of Articles on the Parallelogram Theorem of Pierre Varignon, by Peter N. Oliver
An introduction to Varignon’s theorem, his original proof and some deductive implications, along with suggested exercises at the elementary, middle, and high school levels.

Aiding the Teaching of Geometry and Affording Mathematical Recreation: Paper Folding in the Spirit of Sundara Rao of Madras by Peggy Aldrich Kidwell
A history of paper folding in mathematics education that focuses on the background, publication, and reception of Sundara Rao’s 1893 Geometrical Exercises in Paper Folding. The article also describes several potential classroom activities for secondary and undergraduate students of geometry and preservice teachers.

Ancient Indian Rope Geometry in the Classroom and More Classroom Activities Based on Ancient Indian Rope Geometry, by Cynthia J. Huffman and Scott V. Thuong
Activities, applets, and information to help students explore the geometry of altar construction in ancient India. Includes activities designed for elementary, middle school, and high school students.

Benjamin Banneker's Inscribed Equilateral Triangle, by John F. Mahoney
An interesting problem from Banneker's notebook as well as other problems to use with students.

Geometrical Representation of Arithmetic Series, by Gautami Bhowmik
Hints of geometry in medieval Sanskrit arithmetic texts developed for classroom use; includes an outline of a lesson plan for students with basic background in geometry, arithmetic, and algebra.

Kepler and the Rhombic Dodecahedron, by Roberto Cardil
Resources for sharing Kepler's fascinating studies of the rhombic dodecahedron with students.

Leonardo of Pisa: Bunny Rabbits to Bull Markets, by Sandra Monteferrante
Lesson plans and background information for exploring applications of the Fibonacci numbers to areas such as plant growth and stock market predictions with students.

Maya Calendar Conversions, by Ximena Catepillan and Waclaw Szymanski
Students learn about Maya calendar systems, including how to convert Maya Long Count dates to Calendar Round (Tzolkin and Haab calendar) dates, on a trip to the Yucatan.

Maya Cycles of Time, by Sandra Monteferrante
Explorations of the Mayan calendar with suggestions for further exploration.

Maya Geometry in the Classroom, by John Diamantopoulos and Cynthia Woodburn
During the Classical Era, Maya people probably used knotted ropes to form desired geometric shapes in art and architecture: here's how!

Measuring the Globe: An Historical Activity, by Barnabas Hughes
Eratosthenes’ measurement of the earth, in a form that's easy for teachers to use.

Need the Area of a Triangle? The Pope Can Help! by Betty Mayfield
Gerbert d’Aurillac on finding the area of an equilateral triangle, with exploration activities for students.

Poles, Parking Lots, & Mount Piton: Classroom Activities that Combine Astronomy, History, and Mathematics, by Seán P. Madden, Jocelyne M. Comstock, and James P. Downing
Measurement activities based on historical methods that combine basic ideas from high school geometry and trigonometry with astronomical data that students can collect themselves.

On Squares, Rectangles, and Square Roots, by María Burgos and Pablo Beltrán-Pellicer
Sixth-graders extract square roots using manipulatives and a method from ancient China.

Teaching Leonardo: An Integrated Approach, by Rick Faloon
An integrated approach to teaching the works of Leonardo da Vinci in secondary schools.

The Right and Lawful Rood, by Peter Ransom
How to calculate the “rood,” a linear measure dating from many centuries ago, in today's classrooms.

The Rule of False Position and Geometric Problems, by Vicente Meavilla Segui and Alfinio Flores
Examples of the use of the rule of false position in the solution of geometric problems as found in the work of Simon Stevin, with a discussion of the benefits for future teachers and their students.

Using Historical Problems in the Middle School, by Karen Michalowicz and Robert McGee
Examples from medieval times, from a 19th-century American textbook, and from a 19th-century Armenian textbook, among other sources.