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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Thirty flasks—10 full, 10 half-empty, and 10 completely empty—are to be divided among 3 sons so that flasks and contents should be shared equally. How may this be done?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
There is a mound of earth in the shape of a frustum of a cone.
What proportions of sugar at 8 cents, 10 cents and 14 cents per pound, will compose a mixture worth 12 cents per pound?
Given a rectangle, find the line through one vertex of minimum length that passes through the extensions of the two opposite sides.
What will the diameter of a sphere be, when its volume and surface area are expressed by the same number?
Knowing the base, b, and the altitude, a, of a triangle, find the expression for a side of the inscribed square.
Three men wish to buy a horse but none have a sufficient amount of money for the purchase; to do so, they must borrow from each other. How much money does each man have and what is the price of the horse?
A railway train strikes a snowdrift which creates a constant resistance. How long does it take the snow to stop the train?
Wanting to know the breadth of a river, I measured a base of 500 yards in a straight line close by one side of it.