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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

Three people buy timber together. One pays the merchant 5 coins, another 3 coins, and the last 2 coins.
If a ladder, placed 8 ft. from the base of a building 40 ft. high, just reached the top, how far must it be placed from the base of the building that it may reach a point 10 ft. from the top?
An oracle ordered a prince to build a sacred building, whose space would be 400 cubits, the length being 6 cubits more than the width, and the width 3 cubits more than the height. Find the dimensions of the building.
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions
Given right triangle ABC where C is the right angle, ellipse O (a,b) is inscribed in it, with its major axis parallel to BC. Calculate the semi-major axis, a, in terms of AC, BC and b.
Two merchants, A and B, loaded a ship with 500 hhds (hogsheads) of rum; A loaded 350 hhds, and B the rest; in a storm the seamen were obliged to throw overboard 100 hhds; how much must each sustain of the loss?
The edge of a cloud is at an altitude of 20 degrees and the sun above it at 35 degrees. The shadow cast by the edge of the cloud fall on a object 2300 yards away, how high is the cloud?
Two bicyclists travel in opposite directions around a quarter-mile track and meet every 22 seconds. When they travel in the same direction on this track, the faster passes the slower once every 3 minutes and 40 seconds. Find the rate of each rider
A man has four creditors. To the first he owes 624 ducats; to the second, 546; to the third, 492; and to the fourth 368.
Three vertical posts along a straight canal, each rising to the same height above the surface of the water. By using measurments of the posts, determine, to the nearest mile, the radius of the earth.