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Problems from Another Time

Individual problems from throughout mathematics history, as well as articles that include problem sets for students.

A merchant bought 50,000 pounds of pepper in Portugal for 10,000 scudi and paid a tax of 500 scudi.
In a square box that contains 1000 marbles, how many will it take to reach across the bottom of the box in a straight row?
Determine the dimensions for a right-angled triangle, having been given the hypotenuse, and the side of the inscribed square.
A merchant gave a university 2,814 ducats on the understanding that he was to be paid back 618 ducats per year for 9 years, at the end of which the 2,814 ducats should be considered as paid.
The authors recount the 'great tale' of Napier's and Burgi's parallel development of logarithms and urge you to use it in class.
There are two piles, one containing 9 gold coins, the other 11 silver coins.
Now there is a wall 5 feet thick and two rats tunnel from opposite sides.
The incircle O(r) of triangle ABC touches AB at D, BC at E and AC at F. Find r in terms of AD, BE and CF.
Given a number, take 1/3 of the number away from itself and also remove 2. If this result is multiplied by itself, it equals the number plus 24. What is the number?
Discussion of 15th century French manuscript, with translation of its problems, including one with negative solutions