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This is page 167 from the Exercitationes mathematicae (1657) of Frans van Schooten (1615-1660). This book contained a collection of mathematical construction problems, among much else. It was one of the books read by Isaac Newton while he was a student at Cambridge University and helped to introduce him to modern mathematics. On this page we see a construction enabling one to find the distance across a river.
A wonderful survey of the history of mathematics, emphasizing its relationship with the ambient culture.

A man bought a number of sheep for $225; 10 of them having died, he sold 4/5 of the remainder for the same cost and received $150 for them. How many did he buy?

A compilation of ethnomathematical ideas from around the world.

Two travelers, starting at the same time from the same point, travel in opposite directions round a circular railway.

How high above the earth must a person be raised that he [or she] may see 1/3 of its surface?

In a rectangle, given the diagonal and perimeter, find the sides

A bibliographical reference to mathematics books printed in the new world before 1700.

The edge of a cloud is at an altitude of 20 degrees and the sun above it at 35 degrees. The shadow cast by the edge of the cloud fall on a object 2300 yards away, how high is the cloud?

There are two numbers which are to each other as 5 and 6 and the sum of their squares is 2196. What are the numbers?