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ABO Blood Group Frequencies

John Jungck, Jennifer Spangenberg

From the Biological ESTEEM collection

ESTEEM Category



The purpose of this Excel workbook is to compare several methods for calculating allele frequencies for ABO blood groups. The methods used are the standard textbook approach, the quadratic formula, and the EM algorithm. The user enters the observed numbers of each phenotype. The workbook then uses these to calculate estimates of allele frequencies in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for each method. The user can view the formulas used to calculate frequencies through informational buttons. Four forms of graphical output are used to compare each method. Output includes histograms of chi-square values and observed vs. expected phenotype frequencies, as well as a ternary plot of the allele frequencies for each method. Users can also examine a dataset of blood group frequencies for different ethnic groups from

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John Jungck, Jennifer Spangenberg, "ABO Blood Group Frequencies," Convergence (November 2005)