**Introduction to Statistics**

What Is Statistics Good for?

Some Further Applications of Statistics

Some Basic Statistical Ideas

On Studying Statistics

**Describing Data: Tables and Graphs**

Looking at a Single Variable

Looking for Relationships

Looking at Variables over Time

**Describing Data: Summary Statistics**

When Pictures Will Not Do

Measures of a Single Numeric Variable

Measures of a Single Categorical Variable

Measures of a Relationship

**Basic Probability**

Why Probability?

The Basics

Computing Probabilities

Some Tools That May Help

Revising Probabilities with Bayes’ Theorem

**Probability Distributions**

Discrete Random Variables

The Binomial Probability Distribution

Continuous Random Variables

The Normal Distribution: The Bell-Shaped Curve

The Normal Approximation to the Binomial

**Sampling and Sampling Distributions**

Sampling

What Are Sampling Distributions and Why Are They Interesting?

The Sampling Distribution of a Proportion

The Sampling Distribution of a Mean: σ_{X}* *Known

The Sampling Distribution of a Mean: σ_{X}* *Unknown

Other Sampling Distributions

**Estimation and Confidence Intervals**

Point and Interval Estimators of Unknown Population Parameters

Estimates of the Population Proportion

Estimates of the Population Mean

A Final Word on Confidence Intervals

**Tests of Hypotheses: One-Sample Tests**

Testing a Claim: Type I and Type II Errors

A Two-Tailed Test for the Population Proportion

A One-Tailed Alternative for the Population Proportion

Tests for the Population Mean

A Two-Tailed Test for the Population Mean

A One-Tailed Alternative for the Population Mean

A Final Word on One-Sample Tests

**Tests of Hypotheses: Two-Sample Tests**

Looking for Relationships Again

A Difference in Population Proportions

A Difference in Population Means

A Difference in Means: σs Known

A Difference in Means: σs Unknown but Equal

A Difference in Means: σs Unknown and Unequal

A Difference in Means: Using Paired Data

A Final Word on Two-Sample Tests

**Tests of Hypotheses: Contingency and Goodness-of-Fit**

A Difference in Proportions: An Alternate Approach

Contingency Tables with Several Rows and/or Columns

A Final Word on Contingency Tables

Testing for Goodness-of-Fit

A Final Example on Testing for Goodness-of-Fit

**Tests of Hypotheses: ANOVA and Tests of Variances**

A Difference in Means: An Alternate Approach

ANOVA with Several Categories

A Final Word on ANOVA

A Difference in Population Variances

**Simple Regression and Correlation**

The Population Regression Line

The Sample Regression Line

Evaluating the Sample Regression Line

Evaluating the Sample Regression Slope

The Relationship of *F *and *t*: Here and Beyond

Predictions Using the Regression Line

Regression and Correlation

Another Example

Dummy Explanatory Variables

The Need for Multiple Regression

**Multiple Regression**

Extensions of Regression Analysis

The Population Regression Line

The Sample Regression Line

Evaluating the Sample Regression Line

Evaluating the Sample Regression Slopes

Predictions Using the Regression Line

Categorical Variables

Estimating Curved Lines

Additional Examples

**Time-Series Analysis**

Exploiting Patterns over Time

The Basic Components of a Time Series

Moving Averages

Seasonal Variation

The Long-Term Trend

The Business Cycle

Putting It All Together: Forecasting

Another Example

**Appendix A**

Appendix B: Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises

Appendix C

**Index**