Thirty flasks—10 full, 10 half-empty, and 10 completely empty—are to be divided among 3 sons so that flasks and contents should be shared equally. How may this be done?

*Propositiones ad acuendos juvenes* (*Problems to Sharpen the Young*), Alcuin of York, c. 800 CE

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The answer is: Two brothers each receive 5 full and 5 empty flasks, the third receives 10 half-empty flasks.